Marketing, customer satisfaction and loyalty
Satisfied customers will follow you everywhere

The first of the 7Ps of the marketing mix is, of course, the product. The term product does not mean a physical object. It can also be a service. To cover this first “P,” you will have to describe the characteristics of the product (design, packaging, functionality), its place in the range of other products, as well as the services that are attached to it (after-sales service, repair, recycling at the end of its life).

Below, we detail the different elements to be analyzed in the “Product” marketing mix framework. For each component, we have added concrete examples and explained them.

The “product” is part of the original 4P model invented by McCarthy (1961). For a general overview of the history and development of the marketing mix, please visit our guide.

The different facets of the Marketing Mix « Product »

marketing mix 4P product produit

Product design

Questions to ask: Is the product’s design remarkable? Is the product differentiated by its design? How does the design contribute to attracting customers and building loyalty?

Examples: Many companies have made design an essential component of their success: Apple, of course, Bang & Olufsen (audio and video equipment), Bodum (kitchen accessories),

Nowadays, design is a differentiating element found in the interior design of physical sales spaces and websites. To deepen this point, please visit the Marketing Mix sheet “Physical environment.”

contenant à café Bodum ; exemple de marketing mix "produit"

Bodum products adopt highly recognizable color and design codes to attract customers and promote cross-selling.

Product assortment

Questions to ask: Where does the product fit in the company’s product range? Is the product itself available in more variants? Is it a limited edition of an existing product?

Examples: The range of iPads comes in 3 models: mini, Air, Pro, and in different capacities. The range allows for covering different needs at different price levels. Some brands partner with personalities who co-sign a limited version of the product: Dolce & Gabbana pasta, Delvaux handbags.

Amazon’s physical stores are now focusing on “homegrown” products. In Amazon Fresh sales outlets, there are “365 Whole Foods” products and products sold under the “Amazon Fresh” brand itself. Therefore, Amazon’s expansion strategy at the border of the virtual and real worlds is reflected in the marketing mix and, in particular, the range of products available.

sac delvaux en cobranding avec Dandoy ; exemple de marketing mix produit

The Delvaux brand has teamed up with Dandoy to produce a one-of-a-kind copy of its iconic bag


Questions to ask: What is the product’s image concerning the rest of the range and with the company’s positioning?

Examples: In some cases, the product is the company. Apple has long been identified with the iPhone (which represented up to 80% of its profits). Perugina, a Nestlé Group brand, is identified with its flagship product, the “Bacio Perugina.”

baci perugina store perugia

The Perugina confectionery brand is identified in the minds of consumers by its iconic product “Bacio Perugina.”



Questions to ask: Is the packaging differentiating? Is it designed with a particular spirit that is reflected in its design?

Examples: Apple has from the beginning created packaging that matched the spirit of its iPhone. They followed the same design principles.

Amazon identified early on that packaging could be a source of customer dissatisfaction. Launching “100% frustration-free” packaging has enriched its marketing mix with an original dimension.

In doing so, Amazon has reinforced its image as a leader among consumers and has developed a standard that others are now adopting.



marketing mix produit packaging

The chocolate maker Pierre Marcolini and Maison Kitsuné have joined forces to create limited edition cakes. For this occasion, a very original packaging was designed. This packaging is a tangible element of the marketing mix “product.”


marketing mix produit packaging - packaging Bonne Maman

Bonne Maman’s packaging has particular codes that reinforce the brand’s marketing positioning. Nostalgia can be seen in the motifs used (the checkered tablecloth, for example). In this sense, the packaging is an integral part of the Bonne Maman marketing mix.

marketing mix produit packaging Monoprix

When Monoprix wanted to rethink the products marketed under its brand (Private Label), the packaging played a central role. A very distinctive identity was given to the packaging, which became an element of the marketing mix.


Questions to ask: What services are proposed during or after the sale of the product?

Examples: Apple’s pre-sales service is remarkable thanks to the level of expertise of its salespeople (see also the “human aspects” part of the marketing mix).


marketing mix service avant vente Apple

Apple’s pre-sales service is known for its high level of quality. The “blue vests” are the Apple employees in the Apple Store who advise customers. So, this service is part of Apple’s marketing mix.


Questions to ask: What extra-legal guarantees does the company offer its customers?

Examples: Tediber offers a 100-night money-back guarantee on its mattress. Kia offers a 7-year warranty on its new cars.

marketing mix product garanties

Tediber is a DNVB (Digital Native Vertical Brand) that markets a mattress sold online. A mattress is a necessary purchase that can present certain risks. Tediber offers an unconditional 100-day money-back guarantee to eliminate any perceived risks for potential customers. This guarantee is, therefore, an integral part of the marketing mix of the Tediber brand


Questions to ask: how does the company simplify the return of its products if the customer is not satisfied?

Examples: Zalando offers free returns on unsuitable products. Free returns are a vital part of Zalando’s strategy to attract customers and get them to buy. Even if it has a high cost for the company, this free returns policy is therefore central to the marketing mix.

Product upgrades

Questions to ask: Does the company offer facilities to service the product and keep it up to date?

Examples: Porsche maintains an extensive inventory of spare parts, even for its oldest models. Thanks to this policy, nearly 70% of the Porsches produced since the birth of the brand are still running.


Questions to ask: What does the company do to manage the end of life of its products?

Examples: Nespresso recovers used capsules when delivering new ones and recycle aluminum. Apple proposes to take back your old iPhone when you buy a new model.

Some companies are committed to the niche of reparability. The introduction of a repairability index has led to the emergence of brands like Fair Phone. Some companies have even launched themselves exclusively on the repair market. Murfy, for example, is developing a solid network for the repair of household appliances.


The Fairphone was designed to be easily repairable and have the longest possible lifespan.
Credits: Fairphone via Flickr

capsules nespress

Nespresso recovers its capsules to recycle the aluminum and combat the criticism that was heard about its product.